The study adopted a mixed methods research design.  Data was collected over two years with FSL teacher candidates completing their Bachelor of Education to become certified FSL teachers. Bachelor of Education programs in Ontario are generally two years in length (see Ontario College of Teachers for details), as such we gathered data from teacher candidates in their first year and second year of the program. Complemented by an analysis of program documents, professors who taught FSL-oriented courses and administrators of the Bachelor of Education program were also solicited. 


In order to streamline the data analysis process across the two universities, research team members met to agree on procedures for analyzing survey and interview datasets to respond to the research questions. 

Types of analyses conducted include:

Year 1

In Year 1, which focused on conducting a needs analysis, an inventory of practices linked to each of the four pillars for success was documented from website/document analysis and interviews with teacher candidates and professors. Teacher candidates also took part in a survey to provide information on their entry profile and their experiences and needs related to their teacher education program. 

Year 2

In Year 2, which focused on piloting innovative interventions based on the analysis conducted in Year 1, interviews were conducted with teacher candidates, professors and administrative staff from each university who participated in pilot projects. Teacher candidates also took part in a survey to provide information on their exit profiles.